The judiciary is established as a separate power, independent from the other two branches of the state and autonomous in its sphere of competencies, authority and jurisdiction.
The Supreme Court
The Supreme Court is the highest court and is composed of thirteen judges, one of whom is the President. It has jurisdiction to examine the constitutionality of any law or any conflict of power or competence which arises between any organs or authorities of the Republic. In addition, it hears and determines any recourse by the President of the Republic regarding the compatibility with the constitution of any law enacted by the House of Representatives. As the final Appellate Court of the Republic, it has jurisdiction to hear and determine all appeals from lower courts in civil and criminal matters. Functioning as the Electoral Court, it has the power to hear and determine petitions concerning the interpretation and application of the Electoral Laws. It also functions as an Admiralty Court with original and appellate jurisdiction.
First Instance Courts
The principal First Instance Courts are the District Courts operating in every district of the Republic with the exception of the occupied areas. They are composed of District Judges, Senior District Judges and Presidents of District Courts. The other First Instance Courts are: the Assize Courts, the Military Court, the Industrial Disputes’ Court, the Rent Control Courts and the Family Courts.
First Instance Judges are appointed, transferred, promoted and are subject to the disciplinary jurisdiction of the Supreme Council of Judicature (composed of the members of the Supreme Court), whereas Supreme Court Judges are appointed by the President of the Republic.