From a morphological point of view, Cyprus can be divided into the following regions:
- The Troodos mountain massif,
- The northern mountain range of Pentadaktylos,
- The central plain,
- The hilly area around the mountain of Troodos,
- The coastal plains.
Cypriot beaches exhibit an alternating landscape of rock and sand, with numerous capes and bays. The narrow coastal plains in the north section are covered by olive and carob trees, while a short distance away from the shore is the northern mountain range, which is of a limestone composition and has peaks up to 1,024 meters high. This mountain range was named Pentadaktylos after the homonymous mountain peak, which has the shape of a hand with the fingers facing the sky. Karpassia, at the mountain range’s northeastern edge, is the continuation of Pentadaktylos and consists of hills, slopes and valleys.
The mountainous complex of the northern mountain range covers most of the southwestern part and center of the island and is called Troodos mountain massif, named after the highest peak (1,951 meters), the peak of the Cypriot Mount Olympus. Most of the forests are found on Troodos, comprising mainly pine and other forest trees, such as cypress, oaks and cedars.
An attribute of Troodos is the presence of ophiolites that constitute a global paradigm of a paleo-oceanic crust. These rocks have attracted the interest of many foreign university geological schools, thus resulting in significant theories concerning the origin and structure of the ocean crust.
Between the two mountain ranges lies the fertile plain of Messaoria, which extends from the Morfou area in the northwest to the east coast.
Forests cover approximately 19% of the total area of the island. Furthermore, in Cyprus there are two salt lakes.